Aft turret of HMS Furious in Note that these mountings used sighting ports in the glacis plate rather than sighting hoods. These three ships were designed with the intention that they would be able to force their way through the Baltic Narrows in support of lighter forces as part of an invasion of nothern Germany.

In reality, these ships were so weakly protected that they were nearly useless. As a result, all three ships were converted to aircraft carriers shortly after the end of World War I. A total of three 18" These guns were designated as "15 inch B" during their design and construction in an effort to hide their true size. The mountings were essentially 15" These were the largest guns ever fitted to a warship with the exception of the 46 cm These trials showed that this lightly-built ship could not handle the overpressures generated and so the gun was removed and Furious was converted to an aircraft carrier.

It was then planned to use the three guns in coastal defense batteries but this was quickly changed to mount them afloat on monitors in fixed mountings. General Wolfe fired a total of 81 rounds against enemy targets while Lord Clive fired an additional four rounds.

The war ended before the third monitor, Prince Eugen, could be converted. After the monitors were scrapped following the end of the war, the 18" Gun number 1 was used at Silloth for cordite proofing tests in and afterwards converted to a 16" It was then used for various trials until when it was sent to Woolwich where it remained until scrapped in The other two weapons were also used for experimental testing, one at Shoeburyness and one at Yantlet on Grain Island.

These two guns were sold for scrap in It is a myth that any of these weapons were used as part of the defenses at Singapore. Construction consisted of inner A tube, A tube, wire-winding, B tube, jacket, shrunk on collar and breech ring. Over miles km of 0. The Welin breech block used on these guns differed in that the Vicker's "pure couple" mechanism used on the 15" In this design, the breech screw withdrew through the carrier, which complicated the locking action.

However, this mechanism was fast-acting, with about three seconds being needed to open or close the breech.It was the largest and heaviest gun ever used by the British.

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The gun was a scaled-up version of the BL 15 inch Mk I naval gun and was developed to equip the "large light cruiser" a form of battlecruiser Furious. Three guns were built, but they did not see combat with the Furiousbefore they were removed from her and transferred to the Lord Clive -class monitors General Wolfe and Lord Clive for coast bombardment duties.

Only 85 rounds were fired in anger before the war ended. All three were removed from service in and served as proving guns for cordite tests. Two were scrapped in and the last one survived until it was scrapped in The inch gun had its genesis in the insistence of the First Lord of the AdmiraltyAdmiral Fisherfor the biggest possible gun mounted on the fastest possible ship.

It was designated as the "inch B" to conceal its real size and was derived from the design of the inch Mk I already in service. Construction consisted of inner A tube, A tube, wire-winding, B tube, jacket, shrunk on collar and breech ring. Over miles km of 0. The Welin breech block use on these guns was significantly different in that the Vickers' "pure couple" mechanism of the 15" In this design, the breech screw withdrew through the carrier, which complicated the locking action.

However, this mechanism was fast-acting, with about three seconds being needed to open or close the breech. The barbettes of Furious were designed to accommodate either turret, in case problems arose with the inch gun's development.

It could fire one round per minute. The guns proved to be too powerful for Furious ' light hull, and they became available for other uses duringafter trials showed the ship could not handle the stress of firing.

Admiral Sir Reginald Baconcommander of the Dover Patrolconceived a plan to mount two guns inside the shell of the Palace Hotel in Westende from where they could bombard the naval facilities at Zeebrugge and Brugesprovided that the hotel was captured during the upcoming Battle of Passchendaele. He planned to transport the guns across the English Channel lashed to the torpedo bulges of monitors.

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He also thought that they could be used on the decks of monitors and as such a dual purpose carriage was designed for the guns, that could be used both afloat and ashore.

The concept was approved 23 Septemberand Elswick was ordered to design the new 'B CD' mounts for delivery in five months. Ammunition handling, elevation and ramming were to be done via hydraulic pump, but the breech was hand-worked.

The gun was to be installed in a turf-covered concrete dome with a gunport for the barrel.

18 inch naval gun

As much as possible of the gun and its mount was designed to be assembled out of range of German artillery and then moved on a special broad-gauge railway to the site on specially-designed wheels. After the British Army failed to capture Westende, the mounting was optimised for use on a monitor. It was very simple, consisting of two large girders connected together at each end with the gun and its carriage between them. It was provided with hydraulically powered cranes, loading tray, rammer and breech mechanism to minimize the crew's workload, but the ammunition parties had to use muscle power.

40 cm/45 Type 94 naval gun

The shells were stowed below deck and had to be moved by overhead rail to the hatch in the deck behind the gun to be lifted up and loaded. The cordite propellant charges were kept in eighteen steam-heated storage tanks mounted on the forecastle deck abaft the funnel and moved to the gun on a bogie mounted on rails, two one-sixth charges at a time, which reduced the rate of fire to about one round about every 3—4 minutes. The monitors had to be extensively modified to handle the gun.

A total of three guns were built by Armstrong Whitworth, two for Furious and a spare. The forward gun was removed from Furious in Marchbefore she was completed, when she was ordered to be converted to a seaplane carrier. The second gun was removed later inand she was converted into an aircraft carrier.

The gun from Furious ' 'A' turret was lifted aboard on 9 July, but the General Wolfe was not ready to begin firing trials until 7 August. She was given the nickname of ' Elephant and Castle ', as the enormous gun-mount structure dominated the ship's profile.

18 inch naval gun

While the new mounting was being designed, further effort was put into the ammunition to extend the range as much as possible.History of the U. By James C. The design for a Navy inch gun began at the U. Navy Bureau of Ordnance sometime prior to 8 January The weight of shell now proposed is 3, pounds, muzzle velocity 2, foot seconds.

Two gun designs were considered: one was a light version and the other was a heavier version to allow removing the gun from a turret without dismantling it. The heavier version was chosen. By Decemberthe rough forging for the liner and possibly other rough forgings had been completed and material properties had been assessed.

A letter dated 10 Januarystated that the Naval Proving Ground was of the opinion the heaviest weight projectile suitable for this gun was 3, lbs. Dahlgren currently has two Inch Type B Target projectiles from circaand these weigh 3, lbs. A decision had to be made as to whether it should be finished as designed or converted to a special inch test gun of caliber length. The resulting new gun was designated the inch Caliber Type Gun No.

On 26 April just before noon, the inch gun number was unloaded at Dahlgren. Proof firing commenced on 8 July and after seven rounds had been fired, the proof firing series was complete.

The highest pressure shot out of those initial seven rounds resulted from using lbs. This combination yielded a peak pressure of In this first configuration, the recoiling weight waslbs. The standard service charge was determined to be lbs. Another series of ranging shots were conducted on 1—2 August so that more wear and ranging data could be taken.

These shots were the longest that we have records for ever fired at Dahlgren. On 24 Junethe final round was fired from this gun, bringing the grand total to rounds fired. These threads had to be removed and, for this reason, the gun is now calibers long and not the calibers desired. The weight of the complete gun assembly, as presently configured, islbs.It was the largest and heaviest gun ever used by the British.

The gun was a scaled-up version of the BL 15 inch Mk I naval gun and was developed to equip the "large light cruiser" a form of battlecruiser Furious. Three guns were built, but they did not see combat with the Furiousbefore they were removed from her and transferred to the Lord Clive -class monitors General Wolfe and Lord Clive for coast bombardment duties.

Only 85 rounds were fired in anger before the war ended. All three were removed from service in and served as proving guns for cordite tests.

Two were scrapped in and the last one survived until it was scrapped in The inch gun had its genesis in the insistence of the First Lord of the AdmiraltyAdmiral Fisherfor the biggest possible gun mounted on the fastest possible ship. It was designated as the "inch B" to conceal its real size and was derived from the design of the inch Mk I already in service.

Construction consisted of inner A tube, A tube, wire-winding, B tube, jacket, shrunk on collar and breech ring. Over miles km of 0. The Welin breech block use on these guns was significantly different in that the Vickers' "pure couple" mechanism of the 15" In this design, the breech screw withdrew through the carrier, which complicated the locking action.

However, this mechanism was fast-acting, with about three seconds being needed to open or close the breech. The barbettes of Furious were designed to accommodate either turret, in case problems arose with the inch gun's development. It could fire one round per minute. The guns proved to be too powerful for Furious ' light hull, and they became available for other uses duringafter trials showed the ship could not handle the stress of firing.

Admiral Sir Reginald Baconcommander of the Dover Patrolconceived a plan to mount two guns inside the shell of the Palace Hotel in Westende from where they could bombard the naval facilities at Zeebrugge and Bruges, provided that the hotel was captured during the upcoming Battle of Passchendaele. He planned to transport the guns across the English Channel lashed to the torpedo bulges of monitors.

He also thought that they could be used on the decks of monitors and as such a dual purpose carriage was designed for the guns, that could be used both afloat and ashore. The concept was approved 23 Septemberand Elswick was ordered to design the new 'B CD' mounts for delivery in five months. Ammunition handling, elevation and ramming were to be done via hydraulic pump, but the breech was hand-worked.

The gun was to be installed in a turf-covered concrete dome with a gunport for the barrel. As much as possible of the gun and its mount was designed to be assembled out of range of German artillery and then moved on a special broad-gauge railway to the site on specially-designed wheels. After the British Army failed to capture Westende, the mounting was optimised for use on a monitor.

It was very simple, consisting of two large girders connected together at each end with the gun and its carriage between them. It was provided with hydraulically powered cranes, loading tray, rammer and breech mechanism to minimize the crew's workload, but the ammunition parties had to use muscle power. The shells were stowed below deck and had to be moved by overhead rail to the hatch in the deck behind the gun to be lifted up and loaded.

The cordite propellant charges were kept in eighteen steam-heated storage tanks mounted on the forecastle deck abaft the funnel and moved to the gun on a bogie mounted on rails, two one-sixth charges at a time, which reduced the rate of fire to about one round about every 3—4 minutes. The monitors had to be extensively modified to handle the gun. A total of three guns were built by Armstrong Whitworth, two for Furious and a spare.The specifications for these hugely powerful naval rifles are interesting, although the details vary somewhat depending on the source.

Remember, American battleships carried nine of these guns!

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The barrel had 96 rifling grooves shades of Marlin's micro-groove type rifling, which is typical of cannons. The twist rate was one turn in 25 calibers, or ". The maximum service pressure was Shells of different weights were fired, weighing from approximately 1, to 2, pounds. The rate of fire was about two rounds per minute.

The pound "super heavy" 16" AP projectile, developed in for the third generation battleships, was supposed to be able to penetrate 16" thick steel armor plate at 28, yards. This gave the USN battleships' 16" guns penetration close to that of the Japanese To put these numbers into perspective for the contemporary shooter and hunter, one the world's foremost big game hunting cartridges and also a NATO military cartridgethe.

In this case the bullets have a diameter of. The muzzle energy of this load is ft. Photo courtesy of WO 1 Harold H.Nine, mounted in three triple turrets, served as the main armament of the Yamato -class battleships that were in service with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. When the turrets and the guns were mounted, each weighed 2, tons, which is about the same tonnage as an average sized destroyer of the era. The Japanese guns were of a slightly larger bore than the three British 18 inch naval guns built during World War Ialthough the shells were not as heavy.

Britain had later designed the N3-class battleship with inch guns but none were built, leaving no Allied naval guns to compare with the Type Unlike most of the very large guns of other navies, they could fire special anti-aircraft shells Sanshiki referred to as "beehive".

Some 27 guns were built for the three ships of the Yamato class. Two thirds of the guns were lost with the sinking of Yamato and Musashi. The complex Type 94 barrels were constructed in three autofrettaged stages. A half-length tube was fitted over the first tube and shrunk onto it. The assembly was then wire wound and two additional tubes shrunk over the entire length of the gun tubes.

A final inner tube was then inserted down the gun and expanded into place. This inner tube was then rifled to finish the gun. As designed, this gun could not cost effectively be relined but instead had to have the entire gun tube replaced due to wear. Unlike previous designs the turrets were found to have nothing in common with previous British Vickers designs used in other Japanese battleships when examined by a US naval technical team.

Each gun was independently sleeved allowing for separate elevation. The shell hoists and powder rams were found to be ingenious though unduly heavy designs that allowed a relatively rapid rate of reload. The shells were stored vertically and an innovative system of geared mechanical conveyors was employed to move the extremely large and heavy shells from the shell rooms.

The mechanical advantage required to move the heavy shells meant these conveyors operated extremely slowly but the shells stored in each turret were considered sufficient for a surface engagement. A Type 1 armour-piercing shell at the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of Naval gun. A Type 94 Naval Gun being calibrated on Yamato during construction. Drawing showing internal structure of Type 91 armour-piercing shell.

Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. Japanese naval weapons of the Second World War. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles containing Japanese-language text Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk.From the past several centuries, warships have been armed with a large number of guns for fighting other ships.

This continued until the s, when the anti-ship cruise missile entered service on board warships of the Soviet Union.

The anti-ship missile AShM was a fast, accurate and lethal weapon which had an incredible number of advantages over the large, slow firing and inaccurate naval guns of that time. Other major navies quickly adopted this technology and developed their own missiles or imported them. The heavy-caliber guns started disappearing and were progressively replaced by missiles. However they had to find out the hard way that guns can never be entirely replaced by missiles and that both these systems complemented each other if used in the right manner.

This article analyzes the various modern guns in service today, their capabilities, advantages and the technological innovations which have made guns popular again.

Analysis : Importance of Naval Guns on a Modern Warship

Stealthy cupolas have defined how modern naval guns look. A cupola is the covering on top of a gun which protects the working elements from weather and water. In order to reduce the RCS, the cupola designs were given a multi-faceted design to deflect radar waves. It also has the side benefit of making the gun look better by giving it.

18 inch naval gun

If you look at the pic of the gun with the stealthy cupola, you can notice that the barrel is exposed. This cylindrical barrel is also a reflector of radar waves and can contribute to the RCS of a ship. Hence some very-stealthy warships use a design where the barrel of the gun is nested in a stealthy casing in front of it.

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This allows for a small but meaningful reduction in RCS and the drawback is additional costs. The barrel rests in the casing when the gun is not in use and can be withdrawn by elevating the barrel and sliding open the covering. Let us now have a look at a few of the naval guns of WW2 and their modern day equivalents. These pictures will give you an idea about the modernization that has occurred over the decades. As explained earlier, the design of the gun cupolas has also evolved greatly.

Further analysis in the article will deal with these modern guns. As stated, guns complement the missiles and offer a unique set of capabilities. This has standardized the use of naval guns in several roles such as.


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